Retroperitoneal fibrosis is an uncommon disease characterized by inflammatory fibrosis typically surrounding abdominal aorta and iliac arteries. The glucose analogue F18-fluorodeoxyglucose can be used to image inflammatory cell activity non-invasively by PET. In this report we investigated the usefulness of the FDG PET/CT in the disease activity and therapy response evaluation of retroperitoneal fibrosis. (C) 2012 Elsevier Espana, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.