In the present study, we investigated whether DL-alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation could have prooxidant or antioxidant effects on oxidative protein damage parameters such as protein carbonyl (PCO), nitrotyrosine (NT), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and protein thiol (P-SH), as well as oxidative stress parameters such as total thiol (T-SH), nonprotein thiol (Np-SH), and lipid hydroperoxide (LHP) in the brain and the skeletal muscle tissue of aged rats. PCO, and NT levels were increased, AOPP and P-SH levels were not changed in the brain tissue of aged rats given LA supplementation. On the other hand, TSH, Np-SH, and LHP levels were decreased in the brain tissue of aged rats given LA supplementation. The levels of the same parameters were not significantly different in the skeletal muscle tissue of aged rats given LA supplementation. The increased levels of protein oxidation markers such as PCO, and NT in the brain tissue of LA-supplemenled aged rats compared with non-supplemented aged rats may suggest that oxidative protein damage is increased in LA-supplemented aged rats. We assume that an explanation for our findings regarding LA supplementation on protein oxidation markers in the brain tissue of aged rats may be due to the prooxidant effects of LA. Depending on post-mitotic tissue type and dosage of LA, the prooxidant effects of LA supplementation, should be considered in future studies. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.