Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism has been reported to be a determinant of bone formation and intestinal calcium absorption. We carried out this study to assess the role of VDR gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of osteomalacia. We investigated BsmI polymorphisms in the gene encoding the 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D receptor in 38 patients with osteomalacia and 31 healthy controls, along with examination of serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels. VDR allelic variants were: BB, 31.6%; Bb, 44.7%; and bb, 23.7% in the osteomalacia patients and BB, 19.4%; Bb, 61.3%; and bb, 19.4% in the controls. Although heterozygotes (Bb) were more frequent than other genotypes in both groups, the BB genotype was found to be more prevalent in osteomalacia than in controls. There was no statistical relationship between VDR genotype and osteomalacia. It is concluded that, in this small group of patients, there was no relationship between VDR allelic polymorphisms and osteomalacia.