Meander effect on river-aquifer interaction


Boyraz U. , Kazezyılmaz Alhan C. M.

Groundwater Vulnerability and Pollution Risk Assessment, Andrzej J. Witkowski,Sabina Jakóbczyk-Karpierz,Joanna Czekaj,Dorota Grabala, Editör, CRC, New York , Leiden, ss.55-68, 2020

  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Yayınevi: CRC, New York 
  • Basıldığı Şehir: Leiden
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.55-68
  • Editörler: Andrzej J. Witkowski,Sabina Jakóbczyk-Karpierz,Joanna Czekaj,Dorota Grabala, Editör

Özet

The assessment of the vulnerability of groundwater to contamination has been widely discussed.

We continue to observe the intensive development of various methods of vulnerability

assessment, both intrinsic and specific (e.g. in terms of pollution by nitrate, pesticides,

petroleum substances, sulphates, pharmaceuticals, etc.). Often, issues of specific vulnerability

assessment are a fundamental component of every day risk assessment. In this context,

the classic term groundwater vulnerability related to groundwater vulnerability to pollution

has been significantly extended to cover a number of new aspects related to current geogenic

threats stimulated by climate change (e.g. sea water intrusion) as well as new threats resulting

from the human activity (problems with so-called emerging contaminants, groundwater

intensive drainage, different current and past mining activity, construction activities).

Various modifications of ranking are used successfully in many countries. DRASTIC

remains the most popular among the ranking methods for groundwater vulnerability assessment.

This method aspires to be the universal method, however, this is not always the case,

and it became the basis for the development of new techniques for porous and karst aquifers

and for various purposes (regional and local studies) at various scales. Increasingly, the

vulnerability assessment takes into account not only simple methods (advection models)

determining the travel time of potential contaminants from the ground surface to groundwater,

but also more complex models that take into account the role of physical and biological

processes in contaminant transport and its attenuation. Unfortunately, there is still

controversy about the very concept of vulnerability. Often, authors do not state explicitly

whether the vulnerability assessment concerns groundwater resources (aquifer vulnerability)

or groundwater sources (for instance well fields). This is important from the point of view of

the practical application of vulnerability maps to delineation of aquifer protection zones or

wellhead protection zones. These issues have been widely discussed at three international

IAH conferences held in Poland in Ustroń spa (in 2004, 2015 and 2018), each devoted to

groundwater vulnerability.

An important effect of these conferences was the publication of two volumes of IAH

Selected Papers. The first Volume 11 Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment and Mapping

was published in 2007. This volume contains papers presented at the conference held in 2004

in Ustroń. Unfortunately, after the conference in 2015, despite many abstracts and numerous

interesting presentations sent, the organizers did not receive enough full papers to publish

the next volume of IAH Selected Papers. Therefore the papers in the new volume (Vol.24)

entitled Groundwater Vulnerability and Pollution Risk Assessment were selected from those

presented at the last two IAH conferences which was held in 2015 (Groundwater Vulnerability

– From Scientific Concept to Practical Application) and in 2018 (New Approaches to Groundwater Vulnerability). Both conferences were organised by the University of Silesia,

IAH, Association of Polish Hydrogeologists and UNESCO IHP.

This volume contains 15 chapters presented at both conferences and has been divided

into four main parts: New approaches to groundwater vulnerability (Chapter 1–4), Factors

affecting vulnerability assessment – from scientific concept to practical application (Chapter

5–8), Comparison and validation of different methods of groundwater vulnerability

assessment for different groundwater systems (Chapter 9–11), Groundwater vulnerability

mapping – examples of different national approaches (Chapter 12–15).

The Editors would like to express sincere thanks to Nick Robins (Editor-in-Chief IAH

Book Series) and Janjaap Blom (Senior Publisher at Taylor & Francis) for excellent cooperation,

understanding and kind help in publishing both volumes.

The Editors would like to express particularly warm acknowledgments to the authors

for their contributions as well as for their patience and understanding with regard to publication.

We also would like to thank scientific reviewers for their careful reviews and for their

efforts in the linguistic correction of some manuscripts.

The Editors would like to address special thanks to UNESCO International Hydrological

Program and personally to Dr. Alice Aureli for financial support. This support made it

possible for scientists from developing countries to participate in the conference and present

their papers. Without this help, a number of papers contained in this volume could not be

published.