HEMA-Lactate-Dextran cryogel scaffolds were produced by cryogelation. Mesencyhmal stem cells (MSC) were isolated from rat bone marrow. Critical sized cranial bone defects were created in rat cranium. Stem cells were injected inside the macropores of the cryogel scaffolds prepared from HEMA-Lactate-Dextran possessing the same dimensions with the defect and placed in the cranial bone. The cryogels placed in the defect without stem cells served as control. After selected time intervals the experimental sites were removed from the animals and new bone formation and tissue integration were investigated by histological analysis. The in vivo results exhibited osseous tissue integration within the implant and mineralized functionally stable bone restoration of the cranial defects. Tissue formation started in the macrospores of the scaffold starting from periphery to the center. A significant ingrowth of connective tissue cells and new blood vessels allowed new bone formation. Histological data demonstrated that new bone per total defect area ratio, were not significantly different in "scaffold-stem cells" group compared to that of "scaffold only" group on all time points. However, the blood vessel density was significantly higher in "scaffold-stem cells" group comparing to that of the "scaffold only" group on day 30. "Scaffold-stem cells" given group gave better tissue response score when compared to "scaffold only" group on day 180.