Tributyl Phosphate (TBP) is classified as organophosphorus compounds and shows a fire retardant effect in different material. In this work, lime splitting cattle leathers was tanned two type vegetable tannings, Mimosa (Group 1) and Tara (Group 2) and then TBP was applied to the non-finished vegetable tanned leathers at different concentrations. (0%, 7%, 14%, 21%) After the flame retardant mixture applied to the vegetable tanned leathers, samples were finished with a standard finishing recipe. Fire retardant effect on TBP treated leathers was determined by LOI test. Also morphological properties of leathers by SEM, molecular binding characterization of leathers by ATR-FTIR Analysis and color properties of leathers by CIE Lab Color Analysis were researched. The results showed that TBP treated vegetable tanned leathers were good flame retardant effect.