The intracellular fibrous sheath that surrounds the proximal part of the sperm flagellar axoneme in non-passerine birds is structurally different from that of mammals. We raised a monoclonal antibody against the fibrous sheath of cockerel spermatozoa by in vitro immunisation. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold labelling showed that the antibody bound specifically to the fibrous sheath. It also labelled the fibrous sheath in quail spermatozoa. In both species the antibody bound an antigen that had a molecular weight of about 53 kDa. In tissue sections from adult cockerel testis the antigen was located in spermatids and spermatozoa with little cross-reactivity with the basal region of the seminiferous epithelium or interstitial tissue. The antibody may prove to be a useful tool in studies of avian spermiogenesis.