Global forest ecosystems are under the threat of illegal logging. In this article, illegal logging activities and the principal causes of such violations are discussed in view of the available data and case studies from the Turkish forestry sector. A brief discussion of the importance of illegal logging within a global context, along with a description of Turkish forestry and deforestation activities, is provided. Underlying causes of illegal logging are discussed, and some solutions are recommended. It is concluded that illegal logging is a serious worldwide problem that exploits all forests. Turkish forests have suffered their share of such destructive illegal practices, although the range of impact varies from one period to another, depending upon the circumstances. The underlying causes of illegal logging activities derive from the economic, political, and cultural structures of Turkish society.