Microelements are necessary to support life. However, in larger or lower amounts, they may become more important and critical. They may be accumulated in biological systems and become a significant health hazard. The main scope of this study was to determine the amount of microelements in soil in order to evaluate the relation between microelement content of soil and its health effect in some regions in the Republic of Azerbaijan. Endemic health problems are widespread in the region. For instance, endemic goitre, a type of goitre that is associated with dietary iodine deficiency, has been seen frequently in some regions of the Azerbaijan and many researhers have been working on the relation between microelement content of soil and endemic goitre. During the study, six main regions were determined to collect soil samples and those sites were devided into sub-regions. Totally, 161 soil samples were collected and microelements such as cobalt(Co), copper(Cu), fluorine(F), manganese(Mn), molybdenum(Mo), zinc(Zn) and iodine(I) were measured and the results were compared with the samples where no endemic goitre were noticed. Measurements were also compared with the standards in order to evaluate the magnitude of the problem. Results revealed that the amount of microelements in the Republic of Azerbaijan soil samples varied in a large range even in the different parts of the same region. Especially, the amount of iodine in soil sample was measured low (average, 1.18-7.43 mg/kg) where endemic goitre was freguently seen. It is also revealed that not only the deficiency of iodine was a reason for endemic diseases but also other microelements take role in the existence of such problems in the Republic of Azerbaijan.