Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is the oldest and the most frequent of all described hereditary periodic fever syndromes. The populations originating from Mediterranean basin carry the highest risk for FMF however it is being increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. It is an autoinflammatory disease with an autosomal recessive transmission. In the majority of the patients it is related with mutations in the MEFV gene that encodes a protein named pyrin. This protein has been shown to act as a regulator of inflammation mediated by IL-1 beta, which plays a major role in the pathogenesis of FMF. Approximately one-third of the patients have either a single or no mutation which raise questions about its mode of inheritance. FMF is a clinical diagnosis and characterized by self-limited bouts of fever and serositis. The main long-term complication of the disease is AA amyloidosis. The mainstay of treatment is life-long colchicine given daily to prevent the recurrence of febrile attacks and the development of amyloidosis. Patients with insufficient response to colchicine may be treated with anti IL-1 agents.