A short-term evaluation of 6 months of estrogen therapy on oxidant status in 38 postmenopausal women was conducted. The levels of serum lipid peroxidation products, glutathione (GSH) status, and glutathione-related enzymes were evaluated before and after 6 months of hormone replacement therapy. After 6 months of estrogen treatment there was a significantly increased concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), which are an end product of lipid peroxidation. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). However, the activities of glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly decreased and total protein thiols were reduced. Data suggest that hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women is associated with oxidant mechanisms.