We examined the thermal structure of the crust across complex deformation zones in SW Turkey using the Curie Point Depth (CPD) estimates and made comparisons of the thermal state of the crust with the seismic activity to provide insights for spatial limits of brittle failure in this region. The CPD estimates of SW Turkey from 80 overlapping blocks vary from 9 to 20 km. SW Turkey has two regions of shallow CPD. The shallow CPD region in the Usak-Afyon zone in western part of the study area is caused by upper crustal thinning and shallowing of high conductivity lower crust. The other shallow CPD region is in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province in the eastern part of the study area and is thought to be related to the presence of silicate melts in the shallow-level crust. A NNW-SSE trending belt of deep CPD region separates these two zones and is located along the boundary of high (west) and low (east) seismic activities. It is interpreted that the regional thermal structure in SW Turkey is mainly controlled by the processes associated with the African-Eurasian plate convergence zone. The N-S lithospheric extension above the subducting slab created a thermal dome in Western Anatolia in response to upwelling of asthenosphere. Post-collisional magmatism of Neogene-Quaternary age generated another thermal dome in the eastern area. Comparison of the CPD variations with the seismic activity has shown that large earthquakes occur near the margins of the inferred regional thermal domes. Low seismic activity within the regionally active seismic areas seems to be associated with shallow CPD and high beat flow.