Adiponectin, an adipose tissue specific protein encoded by the Adiponectin gene, modulates insulin sensitivity and plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis. Many studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Adiponectin gene are associated with low plasma Adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of the Adiponectin gene polymorphisms in genetic background of type 2 diabetes in a Turkish population. In total, 169 unrelated and non-obese diabetic patients and 119 age- and BMI-matched nondiabetic individuals with no family history of diabetes were enrolled in this study. We detected a significant association between type 2 diabetes and two SNPs: SNP - 11391G>A. which is located in the promoter region of the Adiponectin gene, and SNP + 276G > T, which is found in intron 2 of the gene (P < 0.05). The silence SNP G15G ( + 45T > G) in exon 1 and SNP + 349A > G in intron 2 also showed a weak association with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.06 and P = 0.07, respectively), while SNPs - 3971A>G in intron 1 and Y111H, R112C and H241P in exon 3 showed no association (P > 0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that Adiponectin gene polymorphisms might be effective on susceptibility for type 2 diabetes development which emerged from the interactions between multiple genes, variants and environmental factors. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.