Mass size distribution and source identification of particulate matter metal components at four urban sites and a background site of Istanbul

Sahin U. A. , Polat G., Onat B.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.23, no.11, pp.11085-11099, 2016 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-016-6323-z
  • Page Numbers: pp.11085-11099


In this study, the size distribution characteristics and metal contents of particulate matter (PM) have been determined. In this scope, PM sampling has been done at five stations in Istanbul. PM filter samples were collected for eight different sizes using the Anderson cascade impactor. PM filters were decomposed and analyzed for 20 metals. The highest median concentration for Fe, Ca, K, and Mg, known as soil metals, were observed as follows: Fe and Ca were observed at Goztepe station (1.20 and 8.28 mu g/m(3)), K was observed at Kilyos station (0.33 mu g/m(3)), and Mg was observed at Avcilar station (0.37 mu g/m(3)). The highest median concentrations for Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, V, As, Se, Co, and Cd, known as anthropogenic metals, were observed at Avcilar, Goztepe, and Besiktas stations. Although the lowest metal concentrations was determined at Kilyos stations that was selected as the urban background. The enrichment factors (EFs) of most metals in the fine PM is higher than those in the coarse mode. According to the factor analyses, the most important emission source was observed to be industrial facilities at Avcilar; traffic at Besiktas; traffic and domestic heating at Goztepe; and domestic heating, sea salt aerosols, and ship traffic (in the Bosphorus Channel of Istanbul) at Rasathane.