The aim of surgical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer is complete resection. Lately, the number of patients in whom pneumonectomy is necessary is decreasing attributable to advances in diagnostic imaging and improved techniques for surgery such as bronchoplasty. The risk of pulmonary resection depends on both patient characteristics, and type of resection. The type of surgical procedure affects mortality. The fact that patients undergoing a right-sided pneumonectomy have a higher mortality than those undergoing a left one. Patients who will undergo pneumonectomy first must undergo preoperative staging. Considering the prominent decreases in quality of life after pneumonectomy, most surgeons tend to avoid the indication of pneumonectomy whenever possible.