Multivariate assessment of spatial and temporal variations in irrigation water quality in Lake Uluabat watershed of Turkey

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Yurtseven İ. , Randhir T. O.

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, cilt.192, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 192
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s10661-020-08723-2


Irrigation water quality has important implications on salinity, ion toxicity, production cost, and crop failures. There is a need for a comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal dynamics in parameters at a watershed scale. This information is critical for irrigation management in agricultural production. The Lake Uluabat watershed is a significant agricultural area of Turkey, which is studied using monitored water data. Multivariate assessment is performed using cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA) to evaluate temporal and spatial variations in water quality in the watershed. The data is processed by clustering, reducing data dimensionality, delineating indicator parameters, assessing source identification, and evaluating temporal changes and spatial patterns. The results show that the most representative discriminant parameters had more than 90.98% validity in both temporal and spatial analyses. Runoff rate (Q) and water temperature (WT) were identified in the temporal study, while spatial analysis showed bicarbonate (HCO3-), sulfate (SO42-), and boron (B3+) as indicators. Salinity, sodicity, boron hazard, and alkalinity affect both spatial and temporal water quality patterns in the watershed. It is observed that continued use of poor-quality irrigation water can adversely affect agriculture and soil health in a watershed. Spatio-temporal relationships in parameters will be useful in sustainable irrigation management and farm planning for improving crop productivity and soil health.