This descriptive and correlation-seeking study was designed to determine sexual problems in female renal transplant patients and determine whether there is a difference between the pre- and post-transplantation period in terms of sexual function. This research was completed in the Transplantation Outpatient Clinic of Istanbul School of Medicine and included 100 female patients who met the research criteria between September 2010 and June 2011. In line with the literature, the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale and an information form prepared by researchers were used to evaluate sociodemographic features and sexual function. The sexual function of the patients in the post-transplantation period was observed to be significantly good compared with those of patients in the dialysis period (r = 0.693, p = 0.000) according to the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale average score, although 79 % of the patients were diagnosed with sexual dysfunction. Significant correlations were found between score and patient age, spouse age, economic situation, educational background, sexual intercourse frequency, and type of treatment. According to these study results, transplantation is the best treatment option for a healthy sexual life in patients with end-stage renal disease.