In silico and in vitro studies of two non-imidazole multiple targeting agents at histamine H-3 receptors and cholinesterase enzymes

Ghamari N., Dastmalchi S., Zarei O., Arias-Montano J., Reiner D., ÜSTÜN ALKAN F. , ...Daha Fazla

CHEMICAL BIOLOGY & DRUG DESIGN, cilt.95, sa.2, ss.279-290, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 95 Konu: 2
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1111/cbdd.13642
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.279-290


Recently, multi-target directed ligands have been of research interest for multifactorial disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since H-3 receptors (H(3)Rs) and cholinesterases are involved in pathophysiology of AD, identification of dual-acting compounds capable of improving cholinergic neurotransmission is of importance in AD pharmacotherapy. In the present study, H3R antagonistic activity combined with anticholinesterase properties of two previously computationally identified lead compounds, that is, compound 3 (6-chloro-N-methyl-N-[3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide) and compound 4 (7-chloro-N-[(1-methylpiperidin-3-yl)methyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-2-carboxamide), was tested. Moreover, molecular docking and binding free energy calculations were conducted for binding mode and affinity prediction of studied ligands toward cholinesterases. Biological evaluations revealed inhibitory activity of ligands in nanomolar (compound 3: H3R EC50 = 0.73 nM; compound 4: H3R EC50 = 31 nM) and micromolar values (compound 3: AChE IC50 = 9.09 mu M, BuChE IC50 = 21.10 mu M; compound 4: AChE IC50 = 8.40 mu M, BuChE IC50 = 4.93 mu M) for H3R antagonism and cholinesterase inhibition, respectively. Binding free energies yielded good consistency with cholinesterase inhibitory profiles. The results of this study can be used for lead optimization where dual inhibitory activity on H3R and cholinesterases is needed. Such ligands can exert their biological activity in a synergistic manner resulting in higher potency and efficacy.