in: Handbook of Research on the Applications of International Transportation and Logistics for World Trade, Gökçe Çiçek Ceyhun, Editor, IGI Global, Pennsylvania, pp.310-329, 2020
Liquefied petroleum gas is used as an energy source in many areas of the world. It is among the most important fuels used worldwide. Transport of this type of petroleum products between ports is carried out on a large scale. These cargoes are transported in ship types called LPG tankers. Transported LPG gas formation must be carried in liquid form. Particularly in these liquid formations, the transportation of the LPG vessels is divided into different types and it is carried under the name of Fully Refrigerated, which authors call full cooling. LPG is a highly sensitive, flammable, and explosive property, but it is also necessary to know special precautions regarding its transportation. Load operations are difficult processes for LPG tankers. The most complex of these processes is the change of load called grade change. The chapter guides LPG vessels’ workers and students in the education process.