Fine Iron Aerosols Are Internally Mixed with Nitrate in the Urban European Atmosphere


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DALL'OSTO M., Beddows D. C. S. , Harrison R. M. , Onat B.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, cilt.50, sa.8, ss.4212-4220, 2016 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 50 Konu: 8
  • Basım Tarihi: 2016
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01127
  • Dergi Adı: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.4212-4220

Özet

Atmospheric iron aerosol is a bioavailable essential nutrient playing a role in oceanic productivity. Using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), the particle size (0.3-1.5 mu m), chemical composition and mixing state of Fe-containing particles collected at two European urban sites (London and Barcelona) were characterized. Out of the six particle types accounting for the entire Fe aerosol population, that arising from long-range transport (LRT) of fine Fe-containing particles (Fe LRT, 54-82% across the two sites) was predominant. This particle type was found to be internally mixed with nitrate and not with sulfate, and likely mostly associated with urban traffic activities. This is in profound contrast with previous studies carried out in Asia, where the majority of iron-containing particles are mixed with sulfate and are of coal combustion origin. Other minor fine iron aerosol sources included mineral dust (8-11%), traffic brake wear material (1-17%), shipping/oil (1-6%), biomass combustion (4-13%) and vegetative debris (1-3%). Overall, relative to anthropogenic Asian Fe sulfate dust, anthropogenic European dust internally mixed with additional key nutrients such as nitrate is likely to play a different role in ocean global biogeochemical cycles.

Atmospheric iron aerosol is a bioavailable essential nutrient playing a role in oceanic productivity. Using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), the particle size (0.3–1.5 μm), chemical composition and mixing state of Fe-containing particles collected at two European urban sites (London and Barcelona) were characterized. Out of the six particle types accounting for the entire Fe–aerosol population, that arising from long-range transport (LRT) of fine Fe-containing particles (Fe–LRT, 54–82% across the two sites) was predominant. This particle type was found to be internally mixed with nitrate and not with sulfate, and likely mostly associated with urban traffic activities. This is in profound contrast with previous studies carried out in Asia, where the majority of iron-containing particles are mixed with sulfate and are of coal combustion origin. Other minor fine iron aerosol sources included mineral dust (8–11%), traffic brake wear material (1–17%), shipping/oil (1–6%), biomass combustion (4–13%) and vegetative debris (1–3%). Overall, relative to anthropogenic Asian Fe–sulfate dust, anthropogenic European dust internally mixed with additional key nutrients such as nitrate is likely to play a different role in ocean global biogeochemical cycles.