Syncope derives from Greek as many other medical terms. It is described as acute, transient decrease of cerebral perfusion resulting in a transient loss of consiousness. Loss of postural tone is a sine qua none. In a case of transient loss of consiousness, syncope, epilepsy, psychogenic faintings need to be differentiated. In this review diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment issues of syncope will be discussed from a standpoint of neurologists.