In this study, water reducible alkyd resins containing different amounts of colloidal silica were synthesized for the first time. In order to achieve this, alkyd resin, which has an oil content of 35%, was prepared with tall oil fatty acid, isophthalic acid, trimellitic anhydride, and trimethylolpropane. The alkyd resin was neutralized with triethylamine, and was dissolved in an isobutyl alcohol-isopropyl alcohol-butyl glycol mixture to produce 75% (wt.) solution, which was called stock alkyd resin. The stock alkyd resin was diluted with water to 50% (wt.) concentration with water and colloidal silica mixture in order to prepare an alkyd solution containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% colloidal silica. Then the effect of the silica nanoparticle addition on the surface coating properties, thermal behaviors and surface morphologies of water reducible alkyd resins was investigated. As a result, the addition of colloidal silica has improved surface coating properties and thermal behaviors of nanocomposite water reducible alkyd resin. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.