Abies nordmanniana, A. bornmulleriana, A. equi-trojani and A. cilicica, four native fir species in Turkey, were characterized by means of GC/MS and GC-FID analyses of their needle essential oils. Large amounts delta-3 carene, present in needles of A. nordmanniana and A. cilicica subsp. cilicia differentiated these species, since this compound is not found in the needles of other Anatolian firs and in those of European counterparts. The percentages of santene and germacrene-D as well as the ratio of percentage of beta-pinene to percentage of myrcene can be used to distinguish carene-containing Turkish firs from each other. Remaining West Anatolian fir species (A. bornmullieriana, A. equi-trojani and A. cilicica subsp. isaurica) were found to have essential oils of the same qualitative composition. By cluster analysis using SPSS software, the Anatolian firs were divided practically into two groups, characterized by either existence or absence of delta-3 carene in needle extracts.