© 2014 Turkish Journal of Immunology.All rights reserved.Although the idea of immunotherapy dates back to 100 years ago, the past two decades witnessed the development of a clinically effective immunotherapy modality for lung cancer, particularly. Clinical implication researches in lung cancer rooted from immunotherapeutic practices for the treatment of melanoma. One of the main treatments of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the monoclonal antibody administration to CTLA-4 molecule. The inhibition of CTLA-4, a key mechanism for the inhibition of T-lymphocyte responses, leads to an increased immune anti-tumor response. Similarly, the anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) molecule antibody therapy dramatically increased the anti-lung cancer cell response in NSCLC patients. The Phase I study of anti-PD-1 antibody showed promising clinical results. Also, there is a strong expectation for the possible effective results of planned and ongoing phase II and phase III studies and beyond.