Aging is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and results in a progressive functional decline of organs and the vasculature. According to WHO data today, 8.5 percent of people worldwide (617 million) are aged 65 and over, this percentage is projected to jump to nearly 17 percent of the world's population by 2050 (1.6 billion). Turkey's 65-and- over population rise over the last 5 years about 17,1% and it is estimated that the percentage of this elderly population will rise from 8.5% (2016 data) to 20,8% in the year 2050. With aging the LV dynamics changes, afterload and myocardial oxygen consumption increase coronary perfusion decrease and the aorta stiffens due to increased collagen and reduced elastine level leading to a high systolic and low diastolic blood pressure and increased pulse wave velocity. At the cellular and mitochondrial level endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells '(VSMC) have key structural and functional alterations that promote cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is defined as cardiovascular aging. To understand these changes is important for targeting new preventive and therapeutic strategies such as control endothelial dysfunction, mitocondrial oxidative stress, chromatin remodeling, genomic instability and vascular repair modalities including bone marrow-derived sterm cell transplantation in the aging population.