Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the use and safety of the endoscope as an adjunct during trigeminal and facial nerve decompression procedures performed under keyhole conditions in the posterior fossa. Method: We performed 67 surgeries in 65 patients with symptomatic trigeminal and facial nerve compression syndromes. The diagnosis was made mainly on the basis of clinical history, examination, and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Surgery was performed in all cases under endoscope-assisted keyhole conditions. The follow-up was 1 week postoperatively, 6 months, and then yearly up to 7 years. All 34 patients with trigeminal neuralgia received preoperative medication treatment and experienced failure with it. Eighteen patients out of 30 with hemifacial spasm had been previously treated with botulinum toxin injections. One patient suffered from both trigeminal neuralgia and facial spasm, because of a megadolichobasilar and vertebral artery with compression of both cranial nerves. Results: Sixty-four of the 65 patients became symptom free after surgical treatment; one revision surgery was necessary because of disappearance of the decompression muscle piece. No mortalities or minor morbidities were observed in this series. Conclusion: A precise planned keyhole craniotomy and the simultaneous use of the microscope and the endoscope render the procedure of the decompression less traumatic.