Background The aim of the present study was to perform a multicenter investigation in Turkish children on chronic peritoneal dialysis by examining the rates of peritonitis as well as causative organisms according to year. Methods Twelve pediatric renal units participated in this study and data were obtained by review of the medical records. Results One hundred and thirty-two patients were on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 21 were on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and 59 were on CAPD and APD at different times. Mean durations of CAPD and APD were 24.2 ± 21.1 months and 22.9 ± 12.8 months, respectively. Seventy-one (33%) out of 212 patients had no peritonitis episode. Overall peritonitis rate was one episode per 15.5 patient-months. The peritonitis rate was one episode per 15.4 patient-months for APD and one episode per 15.6 patient-months for CAPD. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus was the most common cause of peritonitis among patients with positive culture (20.6%). While the incidence of Gram-negative infection remained unchanged according to year in patients on CAPD (P = 0.68), the rate of Gram-negative peritonitis in children on APD was significantly higher (P = 0.03). Conclusions Peritonitis rate was similar in CAPD and APD, but the risk of Gram-negative peritonitis in APD was higher than that of CAPD. © 2008 Japan Pediatric Society.