This study focuses on two inflammatory diseases, viz., "diabetes mellitus (DM)" that causes serious complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, and "ischemic colitis" which is evoked by DM. Ischemic colitis originates from the reduction in mesenteric blood flow to the colon with existence of the occlusive or non-occlusive reasons. Our study objective was to provide early diagnostic approach for ischemic colitis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control use of 0.1 M citrate buffer, the solvent of streptozotocin (C), (ii). induced ischemia (I), (iii) rats subjected to 60 mg/kg STZ intraperitoneally to induce type 1 diabetes (D) (48 h after STZ injection, blood glucose levels >200 mg/dl were considered as diabetic), and (iv) diabetic rats subjected to intestinal ischemia (D+I). The third diabetic group (D) was not operated. At the end of the experimental period, rats were sacrificed, C-reactive protein (CRP) and calprotectin levels were measured in the serum and colon tissue specimens. Tissue specimens were also analyzed histologically. We found that serum and colon calprotectin levels were elevated in the D+I group compared to the D and/or I group alone, but relatively calprotectin levels increased in I as compared to C group in colon tissues. CRP levels were significantly increased with ischemic colitis in diabetes, while colon CRP levels were decreased. These results provide evidence for the existence of inflammation in the STZ-induced diabetic rats with ischemic colitis. In conclusion, our measurements of serum calprotectin levels of STZ-induced diabetic rats with ischemic colitis provide a practical approach for an early diagnosis of ischemic colitis. Furthermore, these biochemical analyses correlate well with the histopathologic findings of STZ-induced diabetic rats with ischemic colitis. Future studies would be desirable to further strengthen the role of calprotectin in the early diagnosis of ischemic colitis in diabetics clinical settings.