This study was conducted to determine the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) in the indigenous population of Al An and to identify some risk factors associated with it. The population studied included all consecutive deliveries, occurring in the 3 hospitals in Al Ain City, where almost all deliveries take place, during a 1-year period. When a LBW infant (<2,500 g) was born, gestational age assessment was made and a questionnaire completed during an interview with the mother. For control, the first baby who weighed more than 2,500 g at birth, following the birth of a LBW was recruited. It was found that a total of 3,485 live births occurred of which 293 were classified as LBW, giving an LBW incidence of 8.4%. Of these, 73 (24.9%) were small for gestational age (<10th percentile for gestational age). Overall, the mothers of LBW infants were found to be statistically significantly younger in age. The mothers of LBW infants also had a significantly higher number of previous LBW deliveries, twin deliveries and a larger number of premature rupture of membranes. The factors that were not significantly different in the 2 groups were diabetes during pregnancy, chronic hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, occurrence of significant infection during pregnancy, 1st and 2nd trimester bleeding, and antepartum hemorrhage. This is the first comprehensive study on the incidence of LBW infants in the United Arab Emirates. The main obstetric factors responsible for this were found to be age, number of previous LBW babies, premature rupture of membranes and multiple births.