The chip seal is an economical type of asphalt pavement that was constructed for single-or double-layer aggregate-bitumen. Chip seals are applied to prime-sealed granular pavement surfaces in order to waterproof the surfaces of sub-layers, produce smooth and high-skid-resistance surfaces for vehicles and protect pavements against the detrimental effects of traffic and climate. Unlike bituminous hot mixtures, numerous factors can affect the performance of chip seal. One of the most important factors is climate. The aim of this study is to determine the performance variation of chip-sealed pavements under cold climate conditions. Three different chip-sealed roads in Erzurum, which is in one of the coldest regions of Turkey, were examined with non-destructive tests. Sandpatch, British pendulum, light weight deflectometer and dynamic cone penetrometer tests were performed. Chipsealed pavements' densities and surface temperature variation and base courses layer's thicknesses were also measured, and deteriorations were observed and scored by researchers. Test results showed that flushing due to the higher temperatures during the short summer season, deficiency of the base course's bearing capacity and moisture in the base course are the most important causes of deterioration in this type of chip seal, and the chip seals in this region must be resealed in <1 year because of the premature deterioration.