Vanadium compounds are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of many health problems, primarily diabetes. We aimed to provide the effect of N(1)-4-hydroxysalicylidene-N(4)-salicylidene-S-methyl-isothiosemicarbazidato-oxovanadium(IV) (VOL) on small intestinal injury in experimental male diabetic rats. Four groups were created of 3.0-3.5-month-old rats. The rats were made diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) at 65 mg/kg and grouped as follows: control animals, VOL-given control animals, STZ-induced diabetic animals and STZ-induced diabetic animals given VOL. A daily dose of 0.2 mM/kg vanadium complex was administered orally for 12 days after the inducement of diabetes. On the 12th day, small intestine tissue samples were taken. According to the data obtained from the biochemical analysis, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na+/K+-ATPase and paraoxanase (PON) activities were increased, whereas sialic acid (SA), xanthine oxidase (XO) and disaccharidases (maltase and saccharidase) activities were decreased in the small intestine tissue of VOL-treated diabetic rats. Microscopic examinations revealed a remarkable decrease in the mucosal necrotic areas, discontinuity in the brush border, deterioration of the villi integrity and oedema inside the villi, but with a mild decrease in the inflammatory cells, deterioration and loss of integrity of the gland in the small intestine of VOL-treated diabetic rats. Moreover, VOL treatment markedly decreased the proliferation of villus cells and especially inflammatory cells in the small intestine of diabetic rats. According to the obtained data, the administration of VOL is a potentially convenient strategy to reducing small intestine injury in diabetic rats.