Background and Aims: Secondary bacterial infections and free radical injury have been known to play an important role in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of acute pancreatitis. Despite the therapy models developed in recent years, the mortality rate is still reported to be higher than expected. The objective of this study therefore was to investigate the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole combination and curcumin together in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Methods: Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by sodium taurocholate (n = 60). Starting 6 h after the induction of acute pancreatitis, groups I and II were injected 200 mg/kg ciprofloxacin and 500 mg/kg metronidazole intraperitoneally every 12 h for 6 days. Groups II and III received 100 mg/kg curcumin since day 20 prior to the initiation of acute pancreatitis. On day 6, animals of all groups were killed. Blood and tissue samples were taken for biochemical, pathologic and bacteriologic examination. Results: No statistical difference in the treatment groups versus the non-treatment group has been detected in the pancreatic tissue on the basis of histopathological scoring results. Prevalences of bacterial translocation were significantly lower in the treatment groups (groups I-III) than in the non-treatment group (group IV) (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively). Serum amylase, lipase, malon dialdehyde and nitric oxide (except for nitric oxide level in group I), levels of groups I, II and III were significantly lower than those of group IV (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The administration of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole in combination and curcumin in acute pancreatitis failed to provide a preventive effect on the occurrence of tissue injury, whereas free radical injury and prevalence of bacterial translocation were reduced significantly. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP.