Leishmania is a disease that is transmitted via Phlebotomine sand flies. Two clinical forms of leishmaniasis are observed in humans: Visceral and cutaneous leishamniasis. The latter is very widespread in our country and may resolve by itself with scar formation. Whereas visceral leishmaniasis can be lethal if left untreated. Recently, molecular studies have shown that agents causing visceral leishmaniasis may cause cutaneous leishmaniasis and vice-versa.
A 34-year-old female patient from Kahramanmaraş was sent to the microbiology laboratory with a pre-diagnosis of leishmaniasis. The smear taken from the patient was stained with Giemsa and was viewed by using a light microscopy. The materials taken via swab were examined with Real Time PCR and High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA).
Leishmania amastigotes were viewed by using microscopy and diagnosis was confirmed. Real Time PCR was positive for Leishmania and HRMA showed that the agent was L. infantum.
As our county has a bridging role between Asia and Europe, we should be aware of the recent epidemiological changes about Leishmania infections. We wanted to present this case becasue the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis was L. infantum in this case and the disease resolved without treatment.