We investigated the clinical factors affecting the development of consecutive exotropia following esotropia surgery. The development period of consecutive exotropia, amblyopia and limitation of adduction were evaluated in 89 patients with primary esotropia that changed to consecutive exotropia after surgery. In the presence of deep amblyopia, consecutive exotropia developed earlier. When two horizontal muscles were operated, limitation of adduction was more frequent in symmetrical rather than asymmetrical surgical procedure. Since consecutive exotropia may develop many years after esotropia surgery, a long-term follow-up period in patients without consecutive exotropia in the early postoperative period is advised. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.