Vitamin D, a secosteroid hormone, has, over the years, mainly been known for its classic role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis of the human body. However, there is increasing understanding that vitamin D contributes to the regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, especially via voltage-gated calcium channels, in another major organ that uses calcium, the brain. Almost 30years ago, the role of dysregulation in the aging brain and in Alzheimer's disease (AD) gave rise to the Ca2+ hypothesis of brain aging and dementia. We thus made calcium homeostasis the starting point of our studies, proposing the notion that the consequences of long-term deficiency and/or inefficient utilization of vitamin D may cause the disruption of calcium homeostasis in neurons, this creating a vulnerability of neurons to aging and neurodegeneration. In this mini-review, we aim to describe the potential of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) as a neurosteroid based on our findings and conclusions.