We describe six Turkish patients with 5α-steroid reductase type 2 deficiency from unrelated Turkish families and a large pedigree of one of these patients who reside north-west of Anatolia. Patients NA, KS, BD and SY presented for evaluation of bilateral inguinal masses with female phenotypes. Patient ABE had penoscrotal hypospadias with male phenotype. Homozygous mutation of the 5αSR2 gene was identified in five of these patients by genomic DNA analysis. These mutations were Leu55Gln in exon 1 (in patients FG, BD and ABE), ΔMet157 in exon 3 (in patient NA), and splice junction abnormality in intron 1 (in patient SY). One individual (patient KS) was found to be a compound heterozygous carrier of two different mutations, Leu55Gln in exon 1 and Arg171Ser in exon 3. Patient FG had a large pedigree with the Leu55Gln mutation in exon 1. The pedigree of this family with marital consanguinity is remarkable, and possibly due to the isolation of this family because of economic and social problems. A further 85 individuals belonging to this family were analyzed for exon 1 Leu55Gln mutations in the 5αSR2 gene. Forty-two of these 85 individuals (49.41%) had this alteration; 11 were homozygous (8 genetic male, 3 genetic female) and 31 heterozygous (18 genetic male, 13 genetic female) for this mutation. It was interesting to see asymptomatic homozygous female carriers. In conclusion, according to our results and those of other Turkish patients reported by different investigators, 5αSR2 gene mutation analysis, especially for Leu55Gln in exon 1 and ΔMet157 in exon 3, must be carried out in Turkish patients with male pseudohermaphroditism. Homozygous asymptomatic female carriers must be taken into consideration in this clinical entity, especially in a closed population, because of the risk of transmitting the disease to their offspring.