Celiac disease is a frequent cause of morbidity among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this study our objective was to determine the prevalance of celiac diasease in a Turkish adult population with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Patients included 122 type 1 diabetes cases from adult diabetes clinic. Total IgA and IgA-antiendomysial antibody (AEA) assays were performed. Patients positive for IgA-AEA were asked to undergo small intestinal biopsy. Of the 122 patients, none was IgA deficient and 3 had positive IgA-AEA results (2.45%). All three of these patients had biopsies diagnostic of celiac disease. The body mass index (BMI) values of patients with positive AEA were significantly lower than normal (P = 0.024). Among the gastrointestinal complaints there was an association between early satiety and AEA positivity (P = 0.02). None of the other gastrointestinal complaints or age, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin values, or insulin doses used were found to be related to AEA positivity. Celiac disease has a high prevalence among Turkish paients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Screening for IgA-AEA during routine investigations of type 1 diabetic patients is important to prevent celiac-associated symptoms.