This study evaluated the ability of white and brown rot fungi and termites to decompose fire retardant-treated (FRT) or untreated-plywood by measuring mass loss. Plywood was manufactured using Ekaba (Tetraberlinia bifoliolata Harms.) veneers which were previously treated with either boric acid, borax, mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP), or di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Plywood specimens were then subjected to fungal decay resistance tests performed according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A-9201 method using a brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris (Berkeley et Curtis) Murrill and a white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor (L. ex Fr.) Quel. The specimens were also assayed against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki to determine termite resistance. Boron and phosphorus chemicals used in the study increased the resistance of plywood panels against both fungal and termite attack. Plywood panels treated with boric acid and borax resulted in less mass losses when compared to MAP and DAP-treated specimens in decay and termite resistance tests. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.