A serological investigation of equine infectious anaemia (EIA), equine viral arteritis (EAV), glanders, and dourine was conducted on the sera of 346 Turkish horses using a combination of tests in series (ELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion) for EIA, virus neutralisation for EAV, and complement fixation (CF) for glanders and dourine. Forty-nine sera showed anticomplementary reactions and were not assessable in the CF test for glanders and dourine. No positive samples were detected for EIA, dourine, and glanders. Fifty-seven sera were positive for EAV. A systematic review of the distribution of these diseases in Turkey was conducted to describe their epidemiological status in the country. The serological results of this investigation confirm those of the published reports for EAV and glanders, whereas different results were reported for dourine and EIA. In fact, no previous data were found for dourine. Furthermore, all sera tested for EIA in the literature were negative, but 3 outbreaks were reported on an international official site in 2005 without details. Further studies and reports of the outbreaks are needed to better understand the real status of infections and the transmission of the diseases. The systematic review is a useful tool to improve the knowledge of public health disease in a country.