Object. Magnesium has recently become a material of interest as a biocompatible and biodegradable implant metal. Authors of several reports have noted the potential bone-cell activating or bone-healing effect of high Mg ion concentrations. The classic method for achieving intertransverse process fusion involves using an autologous iliac crest bone graft. Several studies have been performed to investigate enhancement of this type of autograft fusion. To the authors' knowledge, no research has been conducted in which the efficacy of pure Mg particles in posterolateral spinal fusion has been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine whether Mg particles enhance the effectiveness of intertransverse process lumbar fusion in a sheep model.