High levels of cadmium and lead in seminal fluid and blood of smoking men are associated with high oxidative stress and damage in infertile subjects


Kiziler A. R. , Aydemir B., Onaran I. , Alici B., Ozkara H., Gulyasar T., ...Daha Fazla

BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH, cilt.120, ss.82-91, 2007 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 120
  • Basım Tarihi: 2007
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s12011-007-8020-8
  • Dergi Adı: BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.82-91

Özet

We measured the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and reducte glutathione (GSH) in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from 95 subjects including 50 infertile patients to evaluate the association between oxidative stress and damage and the components of the anti-oxidant defenses in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of infertile subjects and concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the blood and seminal plasma because of tobacco smoke exposure. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) in spermatozoa were also evaluated by luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione)-enhanced chemiluminescence assay. The sperm count, motility, and morphology in the smokers infertile group were found to be lower than those in the fertile male group and nonsmokers infertile group (p < 0.001). Concentrations of Cd, Pb, MDA, protein carbonyls, and ROS levels in the smokers infertile group were significantly higher than those in the fertile male and nonsmokers infertile male groups (p < 0.001). However, GSH levels and GST activities were decreased in the smokers infertile male group than those in the fertile male and nonsmokers infertile male groups (p < 0.001). The results indicate that smoking could affect semen quality and oxidative lipid and protein damage in human spermatozoa. From Pearson correlation analysis, positive correlations were demonstrated between the seminal plasma Cd and seminal plasma protein carbonyls and between seminal plasma Pb and spermatozoa ROS levels in smokers of the subfertile group, while there was a significant positive correlation between blood Cd and ROS levels in smokers of the fertile group. There was also a significant negative correlation of the Cd level of the blood and GSH levels of the sperm and seminal plasma. These findings suggest that cigarette smoking enhances the levels of Cd and Pb in seminal plasma and blood and the extent of oxidative damage associated with a decrease in components of the anti-oxidant defenses in the sperm of infertile males.

We measured the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and reducte glutathione (GSH) in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from 95 subjects including 50 infertile patients to evaluate the association between oxidative stress and damage and the components of the anti-oxidant defenses in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of infertile subjects and concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the blood and seminal plasma because of tobacco smoke exposure. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) in spermatozoa were also evaluated by luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione)-enhanced chemiluminescence assay. The sperm count, motility, and morphology in the smokers infertile group were found to be lower than those in the fertile male group and nonsmokers infertile group (p < 0.001). Concentrations of Cd, Pb, MDA, protein carbonyls, and ROS levels in the smokers infertile group were significantly higher than those in the fertile male and nonsmokers infertile male groups (p < 0.001). However, GSH levels and GST activities were decreased in the smokers infertile male group than those in the fertile male and nonsmokers infertile male groups (p < 0.001). The results indicate that smoking could affect semen quality and oxidative lipid and protein damage in human spermatozoa. From Pearson correlation analysis, positive correlations were demonstrated between the seminal plasma Cd and seminal plasma protein carbonyls and between seminal plasma Pb and spermatozoa ROS levels in smokers of the subfertile group, while there was a significant positive correlation between blood Cd and ROS levels in smokers of the fertile group. There was also a significant negative correlation of the Cd level of the blood and GSH levels of the sperm and seminal plasma. These findings suggest that cigarette smoking enhances the levels of Cd and Pb in seminal plasma and blood and the extent of oxidative damage associated with a decrease in components of the anti-oxidant defenses in the sperm of infertile males.