Purpose Adenomyosis is a benign uterine disease resulting from the myometrial invasion of the endometrial gland and stroma. In the current study, angiogenesis, apoptosis and energy metabolism were investigated in adenomyosis. Methods A retrospective study was performed using paraffin archival tissues. Three groups were included in the study: Group I and Group II; ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues of patients with adenomyosis, respectively, and Control Group; endometrial tissue of individuals without adenomyosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1A) levels were evaluated as angiogenic markers. Bcl-2, caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels were investigated as apoptotic indicators, and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C (SDHC) and fumarate hydratase (FH) levels were also examined as energy metabolism markers. Gene expression levels of all parameters were determined by RT-PCR. Result VEGF expression levels were found to be increased in Group I according to the control group and Group II. Bcl-2 expression levels were found to be increased in the Group I compared to the Group II. It was determined that expression levels of IDH1 were decreased in the Group I and Group II compared to the Control Group. There was no significant difference in the other examined parameters. Although we did not find a significant difference in HIF-1A levels between the groups, we found a positive correlation between VEGF and HIF-1A in the Group I. Conclusion These results point out that VEGF, HIF-1A, Bcl-2 and IDH1 may be associated with the etiology of adenomyosis.