Acetone may induce oxidative stress leading to disturbance of the biochemical and physiological functions of red blood cells (RBCs) thereby affecting membrane integrity. Vitamin E (vit E) is believed to function as an antioxidant in vivo protecting membranes from lipid peroxidation. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of possible protective effects of vit E treatment against acetone-induced oxidative stress in rat RBCs. Thirty healthy male Wistar albino rats, weighing 200-230 g and averaging 12 weeks old were randomly allotted into one of three experimental groups: Control (A), acetone-treated (B) and acetone + vit E-treated groups (C), each containing ten animals. Group A received only drinking water. Acetone, 5% (v/v), was given with drinking water to B and C groups. In addition, C group received vit E dose of 200 mg/kg/day i.m. The experiment continued for 10 days. At the end of the 10th day, the blood samples were obtained for biochemical and morphological investigation. Acetone treatment resulted in RBC membrane destruction and hemolysis, increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TEARS) levels in plasma and RBC, and decreased RBC vit E levels. Vit E treatment decreased elevated TEARS levels in plasma and RBC and also increased reduced RBC vit E levels, and prevented RBC membrane destruction and hemolysis. In conclusion, vit E treatment appears to be beneficial in preventing acetone-induced oxidative RBC damage, and therefore, it can improve RBC rheology. © 2005 Springer.