In this study, we aimed to investigate a possible association of the COX-2 polymorphisms with the risk of developing lung carcinoma. COX-2 (-765G -> C; -1195A -> G) gene polymorphisms were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism in 118 healthy individuals and 231 patients with lung carcinoma. The present study was the first that addressed the role of the COX-2-765G -> C and -1195A -> G polymorphisms in lung carcinoma in Turkish population. In the present study, we found that the frequencies of GG, CC, and CG genotypes of COX-2-765G -> C and AA, GG, and AG genotypes of -1195A -> G in our control group were 0.22, 0.22, 0.55 and 0.59, 0.0, 0.40, respectively. These frequencies in patient group were 0.34, 0.07, 0.58 and 0.74, 0.04, 0.24, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in COX-2-765G -> C (P = 0.0002) and -1195A -> G genotypes (P = 0.007) between the controls and patients. We found that individuals carrying -765 GG genotype and -765 G allele of COX-2 or 1195 AA genotype of COX-2 and -765G: -1195A haplotype had an increased risk for the development of lung carcinoma. In contrast, individuals with -765 CC, -1195 AG genotypes and -1195 G allele of COX-2 seem to be protective from lung carcinoma. We suggest that the COX-2-765G -> C and -1195A -> G genotypes may be a risk factor for lung carcinoma.