Endoanorectal ultrasonography (EARUS) may be used for diagnosing various anorectal disorders. EARUS is easy to perform, has a short learning curve, and causes less discomfort than routine digital examination. Anal sphincters can be clearly visualized, and one can easily distinguish between the internal (hypoechoic) and external (hyperechoic) anal sphincters. Other pelvic floor structures, like the puborectalis muscle, can also be visualized. The use of contrast agents can increase the accuracy of EARUS in the assessment of perianal fistulae. In addition, EARUS is an excellent alternative to expensive magnetic resonance imaging. Besides its use in incontinence and perianal sepsis, the presence of slight or massive submucosa] invasion in early rectal cancer may be imaged in greater detail. With 3-dimensional EARUS, it is possible to diagnose the anorectal diseases, in multiplane, with high spatial resolution, adding important information about the therapeutic decision. The normal sonographic anatomy of the anorectum, sonographic findings of anorectal diseases, and indications and limitations of endosonography with complementary techniques such as transvaginal and transperineal ultrasound are reviewed in this article.