© 2020 Elsevier LtdThe most common approaches in the treatment of epilepsy, the trans-sylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) and the anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) reach the medial temporal lobe through different surgical routes. Our aim was to delineate the white matter (WM) fiber tracts at risk in relation to trans-sylvian SAH and ATLR by defining each fascicle en route to medial temporal lobe during each approach. ATLR and trans-sylvian SAH were performed and related WM tracts en route to medial temporal region were presented in relation to the relevant approaches and surrounding neurovascular structures. The WM tracts most likely to be disrupted during trans-sylvian SAH along the roof of the temporal horn were the UF – and less commonly IFOF – at the layer of the external capsule, anterior commissure, anterior bend of optic radiations, and sublenticular internal capsule. Amygdaloid projections to the claustrum, putamen and globus pallidus, the tail of caudate and the peduncle of the lentiform nucleus were also in close proximity to the resection cavity. Fiber tracts most likely to be impaired during ATLR included the UF, ILF, IFOF, anterior commissure, optic radiations, and, less likely, the vertical ventral segment of the arcuate fascicle. Both ATLR and trans-sylvian SAH carry the risk of injury to WM pathways, which may result in unpredictable functional loss. A detailed 3-D knowledge of the related connectional anatomy will help subside neurocognitive, neuroophtalmologic, neurolinguistic complications of epilepsy surgery, providing an opportunity to tailor the surgery according to patient's unique connectional and functional anatomy.