In this study, formic acid removal from its aqueous solutions through bulk ionic liquid membrane (BILM) was investigated. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) as a carrier in imidazolium-based ionic liquids was used. D-optimal design based on response surface methodology has been applied to investigate the effect of various operating factors. Initial formic acid concentration, TBP concentration, and NaOH concentration were selected as numerical factors, and ionic liquid type was chosen as a categorical factor. The model equations were obtained to determine BILM process behavior. The removal efficiencies, represented by the extraction and stripping efficiencies, were calculated from the experimental data. The highest removal efficiencies were determined at higher concentration values of TBP and NaOH. All ionic liquids studied in this study had good transport selectivity for the removal of formic acid. The design study showed that BILM is an effective method for the removal of formic acid from the water.