Objectives: Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a chronic arterial inflammation of unknown etiology involving mainly the aorta and its major branches. Based on the associations of programmed death-1 (PD-1) protein encoding gene (PDCD1) with connective tissue diseases and vasculitides, PDCD1 polymorphisms are studied for susceptibility to TA in this study. Methods: The study group is made up of TA patients (n=229) fulfilling the 1990 ACR classification criteria and compared to 193 healthy controls (HC). PD-1.3, PD-1.5 and PD-1.6 single nucleotide polymorphisms of PDCD1 gene are genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis (PCR-RFLP). Results: The distribution of PD-1.5 polymorphism in TA patients and HC revealed a similar presence of TT genotype in patients and controls (13.3% vs. 11.4%). PD-1.3 and PD-1.6 were less polymorphic and did not differ between the groups. Rare AA genotype of PD-1.3 (1.4% vs. 1.0%) and AG genotype of PD-1.6 was again similarly (22.4% vs. 19.2%) present in TA and HC. Conclusion: PD-1.3, 1.5 and 1.6 polymorphisms of PDCD1 gene, which were shown to be associated with various autoimmune disorders and vasculitides, are not associated with a susceptibility to TA in Turkish population. © Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2012.