The development of oriented fiberboards made from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and their suitability as a construction material has been investigated. Three different types of boards consisting of five layers with individual orientations were prepared using a combination of low molecular weight and high molecular weight phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin for impregnation and adhesion purposes. Additional boards with the same structure were prepared using high molecular weight PF resin only. The mechanical properties of the boards have been examined as well as their resistance against fungal decay and termite attack. All kenaf fiberboards showed elevated mechanical properties compared with medium-density fiberboard made from wood fibers, and showed increased decay and termite resistance. Differences in the decay and termite resistance between the board types were caused by the presence of the low molecular weight PF resin for the impregnation of the fibers. No significant difference was found for the mechanical properties. The effect of the PF resin for impregnation was much clearer in fungal decay resistance than for termite resistance; however, fiber orientation had no effect on both decay and termite resistance of the specimens.