Black carbon (BC) is one of the key atmospheric aerosol components of locomotive air quality and climate change. BC has the capacity to absorb light across all visible wavelengths; it reradiates solar radiation as heat, inducing a climate warming effect. Due to its shorter lifetime in the atmosphere compared to carbon dioxide, it is an excellent target for emission reductions. BC is a specific marker of primary combustion of fossil fuel and biomass. BC concentrations in urban areas are variable; in developed countries, motorized transport vehicles are considered to be the most important source of BC, whereas in developing countries, biomass burning may be important. The interest of policy makers in BC was rise up owing to arising evidence on health effects and the impact of BC on global warming. The authors present here a general knowledge on BC to clarify its sources, concentration levels, effect on climate change, and adverse health effect.